今天的汽车站在技术进步的最前沿，拥有大量复杂的功能，如自动驾驶能力, GPS navigation, hands-free phone operation via Bluetooth further enhanced by Apple CarPlayTM and Android AutoTM along with many cutting-edge features that improve safety and comfort. 汽车的功能越多，使用的半导体元件就越多. 汽车应用中使用的半导体组件必须满足AEC-Q标准中概述的资格标准. 本国际标准规定了车载电子系统中使用的封装集成电路和分立器件的必要资格. As more interfaces are used for high-speed signal transmission, more semiconductor components are added to automotive systems.
Application of IoT and the Importance of ESD Protection
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical devices embedded with sensors, software, 以及其他通过互联网与其他设备和系统连接和交换数据的技术. 它与云服务器或网关共享数据以进行分析并采取相应的操作(图1)。. One noteworthy application of IoT is in agriculture. 灌溉的数量和时间是根据收集土壤水分信息的物联网传感器决定的, nutrients, fertilizer amount, 天气信息帮助农民做出明智的决定，防止资源浪费. IoT applications have also become very popular in manufacturing and industrial automation, from factory floors to department stores, tracking machine performance, measuring product quality, and asset tracking to real-time location systems. In smart home automation, IoT-based systems have made our homes safer and easily maintainable.
Since the dawn of computers, the keyboard has been the primary communication mechanism between human and machines. Over the years, many technologies and interfaces have changed, but the keyboard has barely changed in both form and function. Recently, I bought an exclusive wireless keyboard. Initially, it communicated with the computer via Bluetooth without any issues. However, after a month or so, it suddenly stopped. When I opened the internal circuit, I was surprised that the keys had no electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Any electronic device's keypad, 侧键或按钮由于经常与人接触，容易受到静电放电的影响. 在键盘/小键盘/侧键中添加ESD保护装置，可以避免我的键盘出现故障等灾难性情况. Let us discuss ESD in general and how we can protect our electronic devices from it.
无论你是在体育场的大屏幕上观看棒球比赛的实况回放, a movie on your large-screen TV or streaming a video on your laptop computer, a high-quality audiovisual (AV) experience is always expected. 超高清串行数字接口(UHD-SDI)和高清多媒体接口(HDMI)是数字AV传输的两种标准. UHD-SDI标准化了同轴或光纤电缆上未压缩和未加密的数字AV信号的传输. HDMI is a digital interface for transmitting high-definition, 高速数字多轨音频和未压缩视频信号从hdmi兼容的来源AV显示器. 尽管它们都可以将超高清AV信号从信号源传输到显示器, HDMI is preferred to connect consumer gadgets such as computers, gaming consoles, Blu-ray/DVD players, televisions, projectors, etc. UHD-SDI是高端应用的首选，如专业的室内/室外视频制作和电视广播，因为它支持远程传输，并且在电缆两端的物理锁机制的帮助下坚固的连接. UHD-SDI coaxial cable can transfer signals up to 300 feet, whereas HDMI cables struggle with excessive signal degradation even within 50 feet. These two interfaces can be used together via an HDMI-SDI or SDI-HDMI converter. For example, as shown in figure 1, HDMI显示器将用于SDI流的置信度监测，以避免需要使用专门校准的SDI特定显示器.
Whether you are watching an action replay of a baseball game on a giant screen at a…READ NOW
Not too long ago, my only fitness tracker was a pedometer in my pocket to measure my daily step count. Things have since changed very quickly. I now have a smartwatch on my wrist to track my daily activities, including steps completed, distance covered, calories burned, heart rate, and breathing pattern. I also receive alerts for messages, take calls, listen to my favorite podcast, and check the weather via my smartwatch. These are all in addition to seeing the accurate time of the day. Due to all these innovative features, 佩戴智能手表并将其用作健身追踪器是全球关注健康人群的趋势. While these wearables help people remain fit, 制造商需要格外注意，以保护这些可穿戴设备免受佩戴者身体产生的电过压(EOS)和静电放电(ESD)的影响.
Not too long ago, my only fitness tracker was a pedometer in my pocket to measure my…READ NOW
HotSwitch®是Semtech的新产品系列，具有集成负载开关或eFuse，可保护电子系统免受典型的电气瞬变和稳态故障条件的影响. 首先，HotSwitch设备根据需要打开或关闭流向电源轨的电流. 它检测电涌，并通过断开负载与电源的连接来保护下游子系统. At the same time, Semtech的HotSwitch产品组合中的器件提供了增强的屏蔽浪涌电流, overvoltage, under voltage, reverse current, short circuit, and over-temperature faults. Figure 1 shows how a system is protected by a HotSwitch device.
The U.S. 美国交通部(USDOT)和美国国家公路交通安全管理局(NHTSA)已经发布了规定，要求所有的汽车都必须遵守, SUVs, trucks, and vans to have rear-view visibility systems that started May 1, 2018. In fact, until recently, 后视摄像头是许多车型中唯一使用的摄像头，被认为是一项出色的安全功能. Modern vehicles have evolved significantly in the past few years, adopting innovative safety features that include blind-spot detection, surround-view monitoring, forward and rear collision warning, lane keep assistance, and autonomous parking assistance. 这些功能利用摄像头和传感器，通过仪表板显示器向驾驶员通报汽车和周围环境. Now, there are at least six cameras present in high-end vehicles. There may be video display systems in cars like DVD players and TVs for passengers.
Since its initiation in the early 20th century, the automotive industry has evolved significantly, adopting many innovations, changes and adaptations. Modern cars feature sophisticated capabilities such as the backup camera, a full-featured infotainment system, smartphone docks, GPS navigation, Bluetooth connectivity, and several other advanced features. Not only that, some of the recent car models are capable of autonomous driving, forward and rear collision detection, and autonomous parking. 很容易想象，汽车中使用的电子元件数量正在激增. At the same time, 为了给新元件腾出空间，对电子元件小型化的要求变得越来越重要.
半导体行业正在生产集成电路(ic)的无引线封装，为大量电子元件腾出空间，并满足现代车辆的安全性和可靠性要求. 在封装后组装过程中，印刷电路板(pcb)上的焊点缺乏可见性是一个很大的挑战. The connections are beneath the package and are not visible from the top and the side. So you cannot say for sure if the IC is adequately bonded to the PCB or not. 原始设备制造商(oem)一直在使用x光机来检测不可靠的焊点. It is expensive and time-consuming to do so.